From Ramen to Sushi: Specialties of Japan Every Foodie Must-Try

Japanese cuisine, known as Washoku in its homeland, is a delightful reflection of the country’s rich tapestry of history and cultural evolution. Tracing its roots, it’s evident that Japan’s geographical location and topographical variety, being an archipelago, have been significant in shaping its culinary landscape.

Japanese cuisine guide for visitors to Japan including eating ramen


Brief History of Japanese Cuisine

  • Early Influences (Yayoi Period, 300 BC to 250 AD)
    • In the Yayoi period, the introduction of wet rice cultivation from Asia majorly impacted the dietary habits. This was the inception of rice’s centrality in the Japanese meal.
    • Introduction of metal tools during this period also influenced cooking techniques.
  • Chinese and Korean Influence (Asuka Period, 538 AD to 710 AD)
    • The Asuka period saw the import of Buddhism from China and Korea. Consequently, Emperor Tenmu issued a decree against meat consumption in 675 AD, which ushered in the prominence of vegetables, tofu, and fish in Japanese diet.
    • Techniques like pickling gained momentum, laying the groundwork for delicacies like tsukemono (pickled vegetables).
  • Edo Period (1603 to 1868) and the Rise of Urban Culture
    • With the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan experienced prolonged peace which led to a booming urban culture in cities like Edo (modern-day Tokyo).
    • The sushi we recognize today, nigirizushi, was born out of this urban explosion as a form of fast food.
    • Tempura, inspired by Portuguese traders and missionaries, was also a product of this era.
  • Modern Era and International Influences (Late 19th Century Onwards)
    • As Japan opened up to the Western world, new ingredients and cooking methods got integrated. Dishes like tonkatsu (breaded pork cutlet) and curry rice emerged, highlighting Western influence.
    • Post-WWII saw a surge in Japan’s global economic standing. This brought more international flavors while also solidifying Japanese food’s status on the world stage.

Influence of Japanese Food Worldwide

Over recent decades, Japanese cuisine has undeniably made a significant mark on global gastronomy.

  • Sushi’s Global Domination
    • From Tokyo’s high-end sushi counters to conveyor belts in London and poke bowls in LA, sushi’s journey is a testament to global adaptability. The art and essence of sushi have transcended borders, making it a ubiquitous culinary experience.
  • Umami: The Fifth Flavor
    • The discovery and popularization of umami, the fifth basic taste, owe a lot to Japanese cuisine. Kikunae Ikeda, a Japanese chemist, identified this flavor while analyzing kombu seaweed broth, leading to the production of MSG (monosodium glutamate). Today, the concept of umami is foundational in world gastronomy.
  • Ramen Revolution
    • From its humble beginnings as Chinese-inspired noodles, ramen has undergone a transformation in Japan. Today, it’s not just a Japanese favorite but has sparked ramen bars and festivals from New York to Sydney.
  • The Whiskey Chronicle
    • While Scotch and Bourbon had long been world favorites, the meticulous craftsmanship of Japanese whiskey distillers has carved out a global niche. Brands like Yamazaki and Hibiki have won international accolades, putting Japan on the world whiskey map.
  • Health and Longevity

    • The Japanese diet, rich in fish, seaweeds, vegetables, and fermented foods, has been linked to longevity and lower rates of heart disease. This has piqued global interest, with many adopting elements of the Japanese diet for health benefits.

Japanese cuisine is a beautiful amalgamation of its history, culture, external influences, and an innate respect for nature and ingredients. Its global popularity isn’t merely a trend but a recognition of the depth, variety, and artistry it brings to the global culinary table.

Japanese Cuisine Guide: Nomadic Samuel slupring on ramen in Osaka, Japan

Understanding the Basics Of Japanese Cuisine

Japanese cuisine, at its heart, is more than just about taste. It is an experience that seeks harmony in flavor, aesthetics, and spirit. When diving into the basics, a few pillars define this revered culinary tradition.

Key Elements of Japanese Food

  • Simplicity and Purity
    • Unlike many other cuisines that rely on blending and fusing flavors, Japanese cuisine often revels in the simplicity of its ingredients. This simplicity allows the true essence of the ingredient to shine through.
    • Ingredients are often minimally processed. This helps in retaining their original flavor, leading to dishes that echo the authenticity and purity of the ingredients.
  • Balance and Harmony
    • Japanese dishes aim for a balance — be it in taste, color, or texture. This is evident in traditional meals like bento where rice, protein, pickles, and vegetables coexist in perfect harmony.
    • The idea of balance is rooted in the ancient philosophy of yin and yang. For instance, a warm bowl of rice might be paired with cold sashimi, creating a balanced meal both in temperature and nutrition.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube

Importance of Seasonal Ingredients

  • Shun (Peak Season)
    • The Japanese concept of shun refers to the exact moment an ingredient is at its peak — in terms of flavor, texture, and nutritional value. This transient nature of ingredients is celebrated and respected.
    • Seasons dictate the menu in Japan. Spring might bring fresh bamboo shoots and cherry blossoms, while autumn is marked by matsutake mushrooms and Pacific saury. Each season has its unique offerings, and the Japanese culinary world is adept at making the most out of them.
  • Connection with Nature
    • Embracing seasonality is not just about the flavor. It’s a deep-rooted connection with nature and an understanding of the fleeting beauty of life, often related to the Japanese cultural idea of mono no aware — the gentle sadness of things.
  • Sustainability
    • Using ingredients in their season ensures they are abundant, reducing strain on natural resources. This cyclical approach to consumption is inherently sustainable and ecologically mindful.

Umami Flavor

  • The Fifth Basic Taste
    • Beyond sweet, salty, sour, and bitter, umami is a profound savory taste. Often described as “brothy” or “meaty”, it’s a flavor profile that adds depth and richness to dishes.
  • Natural Occurrence
    • Several Japanese ingredients naturally possess this umami richness. This includes seaweed (kombu), bonito flakes (katsuobushi), shiitake mushrooms, and fermented soy products like soy sauce and miso.
  • Umami Synergy
    • Often in Japanese cooking, ingredients are combined to amplify their umami characteristics. For instance, combining kombu and katsuobushi results in dashi – a broth that’s more umami-rich than its individual components.

Aesthetics and Presentation

  • A Feast for the Eyes
    • Japanese believe in the adage that “we eat with our eyes first”. The visual appeal is paramount. This is evident from colorful bento boxes to artfully plated kaiseki meals.
  • Ceramics and Serving Ware
    • Presentation extends beyond food. The ceramics, bowls, and utensils used are chosen with care, often seasonally themed or designed to complement the food’s color and texture.
  • Nature on the Plate
    • Dishes are often decorated with leaves, flowers, or carved vegetables, creating miniature landscapes on the plate. This not only enhances the visual appeal but also evokes a sense of season and place.

Understanding Japanese cuisine requires recognizing the profound respect for ingredients, the seasons, and the natural world. It’s an embodiment of harmony, where each element, from flavor to presentation, plays a crucial role in crafting an unforgettable dining experience.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube


Ramen, a simple bowl of noodles and broth, has emerged as an icon of Japanese food culture. Its rich history, the myriad of flavors across regions, and its modern-day adaptations form an intriguing narrative.

History and Origin

The journey of ramen is an international tale. While ramen is undoubtedly Japanese, its origins have foreign influences.

  • Chinese Roots
    • Ramen, known as Chuka Soba (Chinese noodles) or Shina Soba (Chinese-style soba), is believed to have originated from Chinese immigrants in Japan. These noodles made their first appearance in Japan in the late 19th century.
  • Post-war Popularity
    • After World War II, with the food shortages and the influx of cheap wheat from the United States, ramen became a popular and affordable dish. Stalls and pushcarts serving ramen mushroomed across the country.
  • Instant Revolution
    • In 1958, Momofuku Ando introduced the world’s first packet of pre-cooked instant noodles, which became a global phenomenon. Today, variations of instant ramen are enjoyed in countless countries.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube

Regional Variations

Ramen is incredibly regional. The base ingredients remain similar, but the broth, the type of noodles, and the toppings vary from region to region, often influenced by local tastes and ingredients.

  • Tonkotsu (Kyushu)
    • Flavor Profile: This ramen features a creamy, rich broth made by boiling pork bones for several hours. The result is a milky white, deeply flavorful soup.
    • Noodles: Typically, thin and straight noodles are used, complementing the thick broth.
    • Toppings: Chashu (sliced pork), green onions, and often pickled ginger.
    • Variations: Hakata Ramen, named after a district in Fukuoka city in Kyushu, is a famous subtype of Tonkotsu ramen.
  • Shoyu (Tokyo)
    • Flavor Profile: Shoyu means soy sauce, and as the name suggests, this ramen uses a soy sauce-based broth. It’s often a clear, brown broth with a tangy, salty, and savory profile.
    • Noodles: Medium-thick, curly noodles are common for shoyu ramen.
    • Toppings: Bamboo shoots, boiled eggs, green onions, seaweed, and chashu.
    • Variations: There’s a subtype with thicker, richer broth known as Tsukemen, where noodles are dipped into the sauce instead of being served in it.
  • Miso (Sapporo)
    • Flavor Profile: Originating from the northern island of Hokkaido, miso ramen uses a broth that incorporates miso paste. It’s hearty, robust, and perfect for Hokkaido’s colder climate.
    • Noodles: Thick, wavy noodles that hold up to the robust broth.
    • Toppings: Corn, butter, bean sprouts, green onions, and ground pork. These toppings reflect Hokkaido’s agricultural produce.
    • Variations: Some versions include seafood or are made spicier with chili oil.

Popular Ramen Chains and Shops in Japan

  • Ichiran: Focusing on Tonkotsu ramen, this chain is known for its individual booth seating and a customizable flavor profile.
  • Ippudo: Originating in Fukuoka, it’s another big name in Tonkotsu ramen, now with branches worldwide.
  • Ramen Jiro: A Tokyo favorite, it’s known for its massive portions and thick, rich shoyu broth.
  • Ramen Santouka: This Hokkaido-origin chain is famous for its velvety pork cheek and flavorful miso and shio (salt) ramen variations.
  • Afuri: Known for its unique yuzu-infused broth, offering a citrusy twist to the traditional ramen.

To sum up, ramen is a reflection of Japan’s ability to adapt, innovate, and regionalize. From its Chinese-inspired roots to its regional adaptations and global popularity, it’s a bowl full of history, flavors, and Japanese culinary spirit.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube


Sushi is not merely a dish but an art form that has been meticulously perfected over centuries in Japan. The word “sushi” actually refers to the vinegar-seasoned rice, which is its essential ingredient.

The Art of Sushi-making

The process begins with selecting the right kind of short-grain or medium-grain rice, washing it gently to remove the outer starch, and then cooking it to perfection. The resulting rice is then seasoned with a mixture of vinegar, sugar, and salt, giving sushi rice its characteristic flavor and stickiness.

The artistry extends to the choice and preparation of ingredients that accompany or are layered upon this rice. Ingredients are chosen for their freshness and quality. Chefs undergo years, sometimes decades, of training to master the subtleties of sushi-making, from slicing fish to the exact thickness to the delicate presentation of each piece on a plate.

Japanese sushi macro shot in Tokyo, Japan

Types of Sushi

  1. Nigiri: These are hand-pressed morsels of rice topped with a slice of raw or cooked fish, seafood, or even egg. The topping, which is called “neta,” is typically draped over the sushi rice and may be bound to it with a thin strip of nori (seaweed). A master sushi chef will ensure that the proportion of rice to topping is balanced, ensuring a perfect bite every time.
  2. Sashimi: Unlike other types of sushi that involve rice, sashimi refers purely to thin slices of raw fish or seafood. The precision and skill needed to cut each piece correctly is immense, as the taste and texture can change depending on how it’s sliced. Sashimi is often served with daikon radish, shiso leaves, and wasabi for enhancement.
  3. Maki (rolls): Maki are sushi rolls where rice and various fillings are wrapped in nori. There are subtypes within maki, such as:
    • Hosomaki: Thin rolls with rice on the inside and nori on the outside.
    • Uramaki: Inside-out rolls where rice is on the outside, often sprinkled with sesame seeds or tobiko (fish roe).
    • Futomaki: Large rolls with multiple fillings.
  4. Temaki (hand rolls): Conical rolls that are held and eaten with hands. They’re made by wrapping sushi rice and fillings in a larger piece of nori. The texture of the nori remains crisp, contrasting beautifully with the soft rice and fillings inside.

The Experience of a Traditional Sushi Counter

Sitting at a traditional sushi counter, particularly in Japan, is an immersive experience. You’re not just eating food; you’re witnessing an age-old performance. The counter, often made of polished wood, allows patrons to watch as the sushi chef works his magic, crafting each piece with precision and care.

There’s an unspoken communication between the chef and the diner. The chef often presents each piece of sushi directly to the diner as it’s made. The immediacy means you consume it when it’s at its best: the fish is fresh, the rice is at the perfect temperature, and the nori is crisp.

The ambiance of a sushi counter is typically serene, with an emphasis on the aesthetics and the experience of the meal. The minimalist decor, soft lighting, and hushed conversations create an environment where the focus is solely on the sushi.

Sustainable Sushi and the Future

As sushi’s popularity has soared worldwide, concerns have arisen about the sustainability of certain fish species. Overfishing, particularly of tuna, has become a significant concern. As a result, sushi chefs and enthusiasts are becoming more conscious of sourcing their fish sustainably.

Many sushi restaurants now prioritize local, seasonal, and sustainably-sourced ingredients. Aquaculture, or fish farming, is also becoming a viable solution for producing popular sushi ingredients without depleting wild populations. The movement towards sustainable sushi is not just about protecting the environment; it’s also about preserving the art and tradition of sushi-making for future generations.

Innovation is also on the horizon. From plant-based fish alternatives that mimic the taste and texture of tuna to initiatives that track the journey of fish from the sea to the sushi counter using blockchain, the world of sushi is ever-evolving.

Sushi is a testament to the beauty that arises when tradition meets innovation. As enthusiasts and consumers, it’s our responsibility to appreciate the artistry, savor the experience, and make choices that ensure sushi remains a sustainable pleasure for generations to come.

Japanese tempura assorted on a dish in Shirakawago, Japan

Tempura: A Crisp Journey Through Time and Technique

Origins and Influences

Tempura’s origins are a subject of fascinating historical interplay. While synonymous with Japanese cuisine today, the roots of tempura can be traced back to the 16th century, during the period when Portuguese missionaries and merchants started arriving in Japan. The Portuguese introduced the concept of frying foods in a batter, a cooking technique foreign to Japan until then. The term ‘tempura’ is believed to have derived from the Latin word “tempora,” referring to “The Ember Days” (Quatuor Tempora), when Catholics would abstain from meat and instead eat fish and vegetables. The Japanese embraced this technique and refined it to create the tempura we know and love today.

Technique: Light and Airy Batter

Achieving the signature lightness and crispiness of tempura batter is a delicate dance of science and intuition. The batter, usually made with cold water and wheat flour, is mixed minimally, ensuring that gluten development is limited. Lumps in the batter are not only accepted but are often encouraged, as they can enhance the final texture.

Some chefs use sparkling water or add ice to make the batter even lighter. Ingredients like egg, baking soda, or baking powder can also be added for different effects, though traditionalists often stick to just flour and water.

When it comes to frying, the oil’s temperature is crucial. Too hot, and the batter burns before the inside is cooked; too cool, and the batter absorbs too much oil, becoming soggy. The ideal temperature usually ranges between 340°F (170°C) to 375°F (190°C), depending on the ingredient being fried.

Common Ingredients: Shrimp, Vegetables, Fish

While shrimp (ebi) tempura is perhaps the most iconic, a variety of ingredients can be turned into delicious tempura:

  • Shrimp: Typically, large prawns are used, and they are straightened and deveined. The tail is often left on, not just for presentation, but also as a handle for eating.
  • Vegetables: Favorites include sweet potatoes, bell peppers, mushrooms, eggplant, and kabocha (Japanese pumpkin). They’re often sliced to ensure even cooking, but some, like shiitake mushrooms, are fried whole.
  • Fish: While not as common as shrimp or vegetables, thin slices or small pieces of fish can also be battered and fried.

It’s worth noting that the seasonality of ingredients is crucial in Japanese cuisine. Hence, chefs often select vegetables that are in season for the freshest flavor.

How to Enjoy Tempura: Dipping Sauces and Accompaniments

Eating tempura is a sensory delight, enhanced further with the right accompaniments:

  • Tentsuyu: The classic dipping sauce for tempura, tentsuyu is a blend of dashi (a broth made from kelp and bonito flakes), mirin, and soy sauce. Grated daikon radish might be added to the sauce, which not only enhances the flavor but also aids in digestion.
  • Salt: Some purists prefer just a sprinkle of high-quality sea salt on their tempura, letting the natural flavors shine.
  • Rice and Soup: Tempura is often enjoyed as part of a meal with rice and miso soup. The plainness of the rice and the warmth of the soup perfectly complement the rich taste of the fried tempura.
  • Tempura Donburi (Tendon): This is a bowl of rice topped with an assortment of tempura, drizzled with a slightly sweet sauce.

When enjoying tempura, it’s ideal to eat it as soon as it’s served to savor its crunchiness. While it has evolved from its Portuguese origins, tempura has become a culinary emblem of Japan, reflecting its dedication to simplicity, seasonality, and perfection in every bite.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube


Kaiseki (懐石) is the epitome of Japanese haute cuisine, representing an intricate culinary art that harmonizes the taste, texture, appearance, and colors of food. Kaiseki has its roots in the traditional tea ceremony and over time has evolved into a sophisticated dining experience. At its core, kaiseki is about celebrating the natural flavors of the ingredients, each chosen for its freshness and seasonality, and presenting them in the most artful manner.

Emphasis on Seasonality and Artistry:

  1. Seasonality: Kaiseki chefs take great pride in showcasing the very best of each season. The meal captures the transient beauty and flavors of the natural world at that particular time of year. Ingredients are locally sourced and are at the peak of their freshness. This dedication to seasonality means that a kaiseki meal enjoyed in the spring will be vastly different from one experienced in the autumn.
  2. Artistry: Presentation is paramount in kaiseki. Every dish is a work of art, arranged meticulously on exquisite ceramics and lacquerware that also reflects the season. The colors, the shape of the dishes, the garnishes, and even the choice of plate or bowl all play a role in the overall sensory experience.

Kaiseki feast in Japan in Takayama with assorted food and dishes

Typical Dishes in a Kaiseki Meal:

  1. Sakizuke (先付): An appetizer similar to the French amuse-bouche. It sets the tone for the meal and can include a small bite of seafood, meat, or vegetable, often accompanied by a complementary sauce or condiment.
  2. Hassun (八寸): This course represents the current season and serves to set the seasonal theme. It typically includes both land and sea elements. For example, in the spring, you might find young bamboo shoots and fresh sashimi.
  3. Mukōzuke (向付): Typically a sashimi course, this is where the freshest seafood shines. The slices are artfully arranged and often served with freshly grated wasabi and soy sauce.
  4. Takiawase (煮合): A simmered dish, takiawase features vegetables with meat, fish, or tofu. The ingredients are simmered separately and then combined, often in a thick, flavorful broth.
  5. Futamono (蓋物): A soup course. Ingredients vary with the season, but it could be a clear broth with a single, perfectly prepared ingredient or a more substantial soup with multiple components.
  6. Yakimono (焼物): The grilled dish. Commonly, it can be a piece of fish, shellfish, or meat, grilled to perfection and often served with a simple seasoning or sauce to enhance its natural flavors.
  7. Shiizakana (強肴): A substantial dish like a hot pot or stew. Ingredients vary, but this dish is often hearty and filling.
  8. Su-zakana (酢肴): A palate-cleansing course, usually a small dish of pickled vegetables.
  9. Hiyashi-bachi (冷し鉢): Served only in the summer, this is a chilled dish to help cool down the diner.
  10. Naka-choko (中猪口): Another palate cleanser, often a light, sour soup.
  11. Gohan (御飯): The rice dish, showcasing the staple grain of Japan. It can be plain white rice or mixed with seasonal ingredients.
  12. Kō no mono (香の物): Pickled vegetables, which can be enjoyed with the rice.
  13. Tome-wan (止椀): A soup to conclude the savory part of the meal. Often a miso or a clear broth.
  14. Mizumono (水物): Dessert. This could be fresh fruit, a sweet bean jelly, ice cream, or any number of other sweet treats, often presented with great artistry.

A kaiseki meal is not just about food; it’s a holistic experience. The setting, often a traditional Japanese room with views of a serene garden, the hospitality of the host, the carefully selected tableware, and the precise preparation and presentation of each course all contribute to an unforgettable culinary journey.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube


Okonomiyaki (お好み焼き) is a popular Japanese savory pancake, a delightful medley of various ingredients held together with a batter, then grilled until it achieves a golden-brown crispiness. Its name is derived from the word “okonomi” (お好み) which means “as you like it” and “yaki” (焼き) which translates to “grilled” or “cooked”. True to its name, okonomiyaki offers an array of ingredient choices, allowing diners to customize their pancakes according to their tastes, similar to how one might choose pizza toppings.

Origin and Meaning: Okonomiyaki traces its origins back to the Edo period (1603-1868) where there were dishes known as “funoyaki”. Over time, this evolved, and by the time of the Meiji era (1868-1912), it resembled more of what is known as okonomiyaki today. The modern version of okonomiyaki gained popularity during and after World War II, especially in the Kansai region, when rice was scarce, but flour was available. The dish was nourishing, affordable, and versatile, as one could add any available ingredients into the batter.

Okonomiyaki cooked on a grill in Osaka, Japan

Regional Variations:

  1. Hiroshima-style:
    • Layers: Unlike other versions, Hiroshima-style okonomiyaki is characterized by distinct layers. It starts with a thin crepe-like batter. Ingredients such as cabbage, bean sprouts, and pork belly slices are then piled high and cooked in layers rather than mixed into the batter.
    • Noodles: A distinguishing feature of this style is the addition of yakisoba or udon noodles. Once the noodles are cooked, the previous stack of ingredients is placed on top, and everything is flipped together.
    • Egg: Towards the end of the cooking process, an egg is cracked onto the griddle, spread out thinly, and the entire pancake is placed on top of this egg, allowing the bottom to become encased in a crispy egg layer.
    • Size: Hiroshima-style okonomiyaki is usually larger and denser than its counterparts.
  2. Osaka-style:
    • Mixed Ingredients: In contrast to the Hiroshima style, all the ingredients, including shredded cabbage, bits of meat (often pork belly), squid, shrimp, and grated yam, are mixed into the batter before being poured onto the griddle. This results in a more cohesive, pancake-like appearance.
    • Cooking Method: The batter with the ingredients is spread on the griddle in a circular shape and is flipped to cook both sides evenly.
    • Thickness: Osaka-style okonomiyaki is generally thicker than a crepe but thinner than Hiroshima-style, making it more like a traditional pancake.

Toppings and Sauces:

  • Okonomiyaki Sauce: A sweet and savory sauce that’s a bit like a thicker Worcestershire sauce. It’s slathered over the cooked pancake.
  • Mayonnaise: Japanese mayo is often drizzled on top, sometimes in artistic patterns or mixed with the okonomiyaki sauce.
  • Bonito Flakes (Katsuobushi): Thin shavings of dried bonito are placed on the hot okonomiyaki, and the heat makes them dance and wave, adding both a visual and flavorful touch.
  • Aonori: Green seaweed flakes sprinkled on top for added flavor.
  • Pickled Red Ginger (Beni Shoga): Often served on the side or on top, it adds a refreshing tangy contrast to the savory pancake.
  • Green Onions: Chopped and sprinkled on top for a fresh bite.
  • Egg: Especially for Hiroshima-style, where it forms a layer, but can also be used in Osaka-style as a topping.

The beauty of okonomiyaki is truly in its versatility. While the above-mentioned ingredients are traditional, the “as you like it” philosophy means that one can get as creative as they want with the fillings and toppings. This dish not only offers a delicious taste of Japanese cuisine but also provides a glimpse into the regional culinary preferences and innovations of the country. Whether you’re enjoying it in a specialized okonomiyaki restaurant or making it at home, the experience of customizing, cooking, and eating it is uniquely satisfying.

Sake and Japanese Beverages

Sake (酒): Brief History of Sake:

Sake, often referred to as rice wine, is an iconic Japanese alcoholic beverage made from fermented rice. Its history spans over a millennium, tracing back to the Nara period (710-794 AD). Originally, sake was produced using a method where villagers would chew rice and nuts, then spit them into a communal vat, allowing the enzymes from their saliva to ferment the mixture.

By the time of the Heian period (794-1185 AD), this rudimentary process evolved, and koji mold (a specific type of fungus) began to be utilized for fermentation, replacing the communal chewing method. By the 1300s, sake production techniques closely resembled those of modern-day.

During the Meiji Restoration (1868-1912), the sake industry saw modernization and laws regulating its production, leading to an increased number of sake breweries and more consistent quality.

Types of Sake:

  1. Junmai (純米): Pure rice sake, meaning it’s made solely from rice, water, yeast, and koji without any added alcohol. It offers a rich, full-bodied taste.
  2. Ginjo (吟醸): A type of sake where at least 40% of the rice grain has been polished away. It often has a lighter and more fragrant profile. If no additional alcohol is added, it’s called Junmai Ginjo.
  3. Daiginjo (大吟醸): A premium sake where at least 50% of the rice grain is polished away. It has an even more refined taste and aroma than Ginjo. If no added alcohol is involved, it’s called Junmai Daiginjo.
  4. Honjozo (本醸造): A type of sake where a small amount of distilled alcohol is added to the brew. It tends to have a light and smooth taste. At least 30% of the rice grain must be polished away to qualify as Honjozo.
  5. Nama-zake (生酒): Unpasteurized sake. Most sake undergoes pasteurization twice, but Nama-zake skips this step, resulting in a fresh, lively flavor.
  6. Nigori (濁り酒): Cloudy sake. It’s coarsely filtered, allowing some rice particles to remain in the liquid, giving it a milky appearance and a creamy, slightly sweeter taste.

Pairing Sake with Food:

Sake’s varied flavor profiles make it exceptionally food-friendly. Its umami character can complement a range of dishes:

  • Junmai: Its full-bodied nature pairs well with heartier dishes like grilled meats or stews.
  • Ginjo & Daiginjo: Their delicate and fruity notes are perfect with lighter fare such as sashimi, sushi, and steamed vegetables.
  • Honjozo: Versatile, it complements both light and rich dishes.
  • Nigori: Its sweeter palate makes it a match for spicy foods and even desserts.

Other Beverages:

  1. Umeshu (梅酒, Plum Wine): A sweet and fragrant liqueur made from steeping green ume (Japanese plums) in alcohol and sugar. It can be enjoyed straight, on the rocks, or as a cocktail mixer.
  2. Shochu (焼酎): A distilled spirit that can be made from a variety of ingredients including barley (mugi), sweet potato (imo), and rice (kome). Its alcohol content sits between that of wine and whiskey. It’s often consumed neat, on the rocks, or with a splash of water.
  3. Japanese Whiskey: Inspired by Scottish whisky, Japanese whiskey has carved out a niche for itself in the global market, known for its craftsmanship and unique flavor profiles. Brands like Yamazaki, Hibiki, and Nikka are now world-renowned. These whiskeys can be enjoyed straight, on the rocks, or in highballs mixed with soda water.

Each of these beverages is a testament to Japan’s rich and evolving drinking culture, where age-old traditions meet modern innovation. Whether it’s the deep history of sake brewing, the refreshing allure of umeshu, the versatile strength of shochu, or the meticulous craftsmanship of Japanese whiskey, there’s a story and experience in every sip.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube

Japanese Desserts and Sweets

The world of Japanese desserts and sweets, known as “wagashi” (和菓子) in the traditional context, is one marked by meticulous artistry, delicate flavors, and profound symbolism. Many of these desserts not only satisfy the palate but also appeal to the eye, embodying the Japanese appreciation for seasonal changes and nature’s beauty.

Japanese sweets for dessert on a plate in Takayama, Japan

Mochi and Its Variations:

  1. Mochi (餅): This is a chewy sweet made from glutinous rice that’s been pounded until it achieves a soft, sticky consistency. Mochi is significant in various Japanese festivals, especially the New Year.
  2. Daifuku (大福): A type of mochi that is filled with sweet fillings, the most popular being “anko” (red bean paste). Varieties include “ichigo daifuku” with a whole strawberry inside, and “yomogi daifuku” which has a green hue from the Japanese mugwort plant.
  3. Dango (団子): Skewered mochi balls, often grilled and served with a sweet sauce. They are commonly associated with specific seasons and festivals, like “hanami dango” for cherry blossom viewing.
  4. Warabimochi (蕨餅): Unlike traditional mochi, this is made from bracken starch and has a jelly-like texture. It’s typically dusted with kinako (soybean flour) and drizzled with syrup.
  5. Sakuramochi (桜餅): Mochi filled with anko and wrapped in a pickled cherry leaf, often enjoyed in spring to celebrate the cherry blossom season.

Wagashi: Traditional Sweets for Tea Ceremonies:

  1. Nerikiri (練り切り): Highly artistic confections made from white bean paste, sugar, and mochi. They are often sculpted into shapes that reflect the current season, such as cherry blossoms in spring or maple leaves in autumn.
  2. Manjū (饅頭): Steamed buns typically filled with anko. They come in various shapes and flavors.
  3. Dorayaki (どら焼き): Two fluffy, pancake-like cakes filled with anko. It’s a popular snack, famously loved by the cartoon character Doraemon.
  4. Kuzumochi (葛餅): A jelly-like dessert made from kuzu root starch, often served chilled with a coating of kinako and a drizzle of brown sugar syrup.

Matcha tea bubbles dessert drink in Japan

Matcha and Its Influence in Desserts:

  1. Matcha (抹茶): This finely ground green tea powder is vibrant in color and packed with umami. Traditionally used in tea ceremonies, its bitter and rich taste complements the sweetness of many desserts.
  2. Matcha Ice Cream: A popular flavor in Japan, balancing the creaminess of ice cream with the distinct bitterness of matcha.
  3. Matcha Parfait: A layered dessert that might include matcha jelly, ice cream, mochi, anko, and fruit.
  4. Matcha Roll Cake: Light sponge cake rolled with a layer of matcha-infused cream.
  5. Matcha Latte: A soothing blend of matcha powder, warm milk, and sugar, often topped with a sprinkle of matcha on top.

Kakigori (かき氷, Japanese Shaved Ice):

A refreshing summer treat, kakigori consists of finely shaved ice drizzled with various syrups. Traditional flavors include matcha, strawberry, lemon, and sweet plum, but there are also modern renditions featuring condensed milk, fruit, and even ice cream. Some high-end establishments serve kakigori with natural syrups and toppings like mochi, ensuring a delightful combination of textures and flavors.

In summary, Japanese desserts and sweets are much more than mere treats; they encapsulate the country’s deep reverence for nature, seasons, and artistry. Whether it’s the chewy allure of mochi, the aesthetic pleasures of wagashi, the global love for matcha-infused delights, or the refreshing embrace of kakigori, there’s a rich tapestry of history, flavor, and craftsmanship awaiting exploration.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube

Japanese Street Food and Bite-Sized Snacks in Japan

Japanese street food and snacks, while not as globally recognized as sushi or ramen, offer an insightful glimpse into the country’s culinary diversity and innovation. Let’s explore some iconic ones.

Takoyaki macro shot of Japanese street food in Osaka, Japan

Takoyaki (たこ焼き, Octopus Balls):

Origin: Originally from Osaka, Takoyaki is a beloved snack throughout Japan.

Description: They are ball-shaped batter snacks that typically contain pieces of octopus (‘tako’), tempura scraps (‘tenkasu’), pickled ginger, and green onions.

Cooking Process: The batter is poured into a special molded pan, and as it begins to cook, it’s turned with a pick to form a round shape. The exterior is crisp while the inside remains creamy.

Serving: Typically, Takoyaki is drizzled with a tangy takoyaki sauce (similar to Worcestershire sauce but thicker and sweeter) and mayonnaise. It’s then sprinkled with “aonori” (green seaweed powder) and “katsuobushi” (bonito flakes). The heat from the Takoyaki makes the thin bonito flakes dance, adding a mesmerizing visual effect.

Trivia: While octopus is the traditional filling, modern variations can have cheese, shrimp, or even sweet fillings.

Taiyaki (たい焼き, Fish-Shaped Cakes):

Origin: Taiyaki has been a favorite snack since the Meiji era and is especially popular during winter.

Description: As the name suggests, Taiyaki is a fish-shaped cake, specifically resembling a “tai” (red seabream), which is considered a lucky charm in Japan.

Batter: Made from regular pancake or waffle batter.

Filling: The most traditional filling is “anko” (sweetened red bean paste), but modern variations can contain custard, chocolate, sweet potato, or even cheese.

Cooking Process: The batter is poured into a fish-shaped mold, then the filling is added, followed by another layer of batter. The mold is then closed and cooked until the Taiyaki is golden brown.

Korokke (コロッケ, Japanese Croquettes):

Origin: Korokke is based on the French croquette and was introduced to Japan in the 19th century.

Description: It is a breaded and deep-fried patty, often made of mashed potatoes or ground meat.


  1. Potato Korokke: Made of mashed potatoes, often mixed with some vegetables, meat, or seafood, then shaped into a patty or oval.
  2. Meat Korokke: Typically made of ground beef or pork.
  3. Seafood Korokke: Variations include crab, shrimp, or fish.

Preparation: After shaping, the patties are coated in flour, dipped in egg, and then rolled in “panko” (Japanese breadcrumbs) to achieve their distinctive crispy texture upon frying.

Serving: Korokke is often served with a side of thinly sliced cabbage and enjoyed with a dash of Worcestershire sauce or “tonkatsu” sauce.

Trivia: They can be found everywhere in Japan, from supermarkets to specialty Korokke shops.

In the bustling streets of Japan, amidst the shimmering neon lights and historic temples, these snacks tell tales of cultural fusion, regional pride, and culinary innovation. Each bite of Takoyaki, Taiyaki, or Korokke provides not just a flavor explosion but also a piece of Japan’s rich gastronomic tapestry. Whether it’s the dancing bonito flakes atop the Takoyaki, the sweet surprise within Taiyaki, or the crispy allure of Korokke, these snacks are more than mere street food—they are experiences waiting to be savored.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube

Modern Innovations and Fusion in Japanese Cuisine

Japanese cuisine, known for its adherence to tradition and emphasis on the seasons and natural flavors, hasn’t remained isolated from the global culinary dialogue. With Japan’s growing interaction with the world over the centuries, its food culture has witnessed a beautiful blending of tradition with innovation, birthing a unique culinary landscape marked by both authenticity and creativity.

The Global Influence and How It’s Reflected in Japanese Food:

  1. Yōshoku (洋食): Translated as “Western food,” yōshoku is a culinary genre in Japan that adapted Western dishes into the Japanese context. These adaptations are neither traditionally Japanese nor authentically Western, but they’ve become everyday dishes for many Japanese households. Think of dishes like “omurice” (omelette rice), “hambāgu” (hamburger steak), and “katsu sando” (breaded pork cutlet sandwich).
  2. Foreign Ingredients: The Japanese kitchen now frequently utilizes ingredients that were once considered foreign. For instance, olive oil, cheese, and foie gras have been introduced into traditional dishes, producing delightful fusion cuisine.
  3. Bakeries and Patisseries: Bread wasn’t a staple in Japan until interaction with the West. Today, Japan boasts exquisite bakeries and patisseries with items like “anpan” (sweet roll filled with red bean paste) and “melonpan” (sweet bun with a crisp cookie crust). Many European-trained Japanese pastry chefs incorporate Japanese ingredients into French techniques, producing pastries with matcha, yuzu, and azuki beans.

Japanese-Inspired Dishes Worldwide:

  1. Sushi Burritos and Poke Bowls: Evolving from traditional sushi and sashimi, these dishes have taken the global food scene by storm. Sushi burritos are large sushi rolls wrapped in seaweed and filled with multiple ingredients, while poke bowls feature marinated fish over rice with various toppings, heavily influenced by Japanese flavors.
  2. Ramen Burger: A fusion dish where ramen noodles form the “bun” around a meat patty, combining the love for burgers and the Japanese noodle dish.
  3. Japanese-Style Craft Beers: The global craft beer movement has seen breweries outside Japan creating beers with wasabi, yuzu, or sake to infuse Japanese elements into their brews.

Unique Japanese Creations:

  1. Japanese-style Pasta (和風パスタ, Wafū Pasta): While pasta is Italian, Japan has embraced it with a twist. Common dishes include pasta with “mentaiko” (spicy cod roe), “natto” (fermented soybeans), and “shiso” (perilla leaves). The sauces are often lighter, relying on soy sauce, dashi, and sake for flavor.
  2. Curry Rice (カレーライス, Karē Raisu): While curry is associated with India, the British introduced it to Japan during the Meiji era. The Japanese version is a thick, savory, slightly sweet sauce served over rice. It’s often accompanied by breaded and fried proteins like “katsu” (pork cutlet). The dish has become so iconic that it’s considered “washoku” (traditional Japanese food) by many.
  3. Matcha-infused Dishes: Beyond traditional tea ceremonies, matcha (green tea powder) is now found in everything from lattes and cocktails to cookies and cakes globally.
  4. Japanese Pizza: Not traditional but a reflection of fusion, pizzas in Japan might be topped with teriyaki chicken, seafood, mayo, or even corn.

The modern Japanese culinary scene is a testament to the country’s adaptability and innovation. While Japan’s food culture deeply respects its roots, it doesn’t shy away from global influences, resulting in a vibrant and continually evolving gastronomic landscape. Through this evolution, Japanese cuisine not only offers a taste of its rich history but also of its dynamic present, creating a bridge between the old and the new, the native and the foreign.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube

Dining Etiquette in Japan

Japanese culture is deeply rooted in tradition, respect, and courtesy, and these principles are beautifully reflected in its dining etiquette. The rituals associated with eating are not just customs; they express gratitude, understanding, and reverence for the food and those who prepared it.

Importance of saying “Itadakimasu” and “Gochisousama”:

  1. Itadakimasu (いただきます):
    • Meaning: It can be loosely translated as “I humbly receive” or “Let’s eat.”
    • Usage: It’s customary to say “Itadakimasu” before starting a meal. By saying it, diners express gratitude towards all the elements involved in the meal: the ingredients, the people who prepared it, and nature itself.
    • Deeper Significance: It reflects the Japanese spirit of appreciation and mindfulness. The act reminds people of the effort and sacrifices—like plants and animals—that went into the meal.
  2. Gochisousama (ごちそうさま):
    • Meaning: Roughly translated, it means “Thank you for the feast” or “It was a feast.”
    • Usage: This phrase is said after finishing the meal, akin to expressing that one is satisfied and grateful for the food.
    • Deeper Significance: It serves as a bookend to “Itadakimasu,” completing the cycle of gratitude. Whether dining at someone’s home or in a restaurant, saying “Gochisousama” shows appreciation for the hospitality and effort.

How to Use Chopsticks Correctly:

  1. Positioning: Hold the upper chopstick with the index finger, the middle finger, and the thumb. The bottom one should rest on the base of the thumb and be held in place by the ring finger.
  2. Movement: Only the upper chopstick should move when picking up food. The lower one remains stationary.
  3. Dos and Don’ts:
    • Don’t spear food with your chopsticks.
    • Don’t point with them.
    • Don’t stick them upright into a bowl of rice. This resembles a funeral ritual.
    • Do place them on the chopstick rest when not in use. If there isn’t one, you can fold the paper sleeve that housed the chopsticks to make your own.
    • Do avoid passing food directly from one pair of chopsticks to another, as it also resembles a funeral custom related to handling a deceased’s bones.

Drinking Etiquette:

  1. Pouring for Others: It’s customary to pour drinks for others and not pour your own drink. Hold your glass with both hands when someone is pouring a drink for you as a gesture of respect.
  2. Starting Together: Wait until everyone has their drink, and then start with a toast. The common toast is “Kanpai!” which means “Cheers!”
  3. Reading the Room: It’s polite to notice and refill others’ drinks if they’re getting low. Likewise, if someone pours for you, take at least a small sip to acknowledge their gesture.
  4. Handling Alcohol: While modern Japan has a relaxed attitude towards drinking, it’s essential to remain composed and avoid becoming overly intoxicated, especially in formal settings.
  5. Finishing: When everyone is done drinking, it’s customary for all attendees to say “Kampai” once again before leaving the table.

Dining in Japan isn’t just about consuming food and drink; it’s a rich tapestry of cultural nuances that promote harmony, respect, and gratitude. While the rules might seem intricate to the uninitiated, they genuinely embody the Japanese spirit of “omotenashi” or wholehearted hospitality. By understanding and practicing these etiquettes, diners don’t just enjoy a meal—they partake in a time-honored tradition that celebrates the finer nuances of life and relationships.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube

Conclusion: The Odyssey of Japanese Cuisine

When one contemplates the culinary landscape of Japan, it’s akin to peering into a kaleidoscope, vibrant in its myriad hues yet harmonious in its composition. The vastness of Japanese cuisine is not just about its extensive menu or the sheer number of dishes but about the philosophy, stories, and traditions that each item embodies.

At its core, Japanese cuisine is deeply entwined with the country’s history, seasons, and geography. From the bounteous seas that gift the freshest sashimi to the fertile lands yielding meticulously cultivated ingredients, every dish is a narration of Japan’s dialogue with nature. The meticulous presentation, where each plate is crafted like a canvas, mirrors the nation’s profound reverence for art and aesthetics. The cuisine doesn’t just satiate hunger; it seeks to engage all the senses, offering a multisensory experience that is both meditative and enlightening.

Yet, for many outside Japan, the understanding of its food often stops at sushi, ramen, or tempura. While these dishes are iconic and represent the cuisine’s brilliance, they are but the tip of the iceberg.

Vastness and Depth of Japanese Cuisine

Beneath the surface lies a treasure trove of regional specialties, age-old recipes, modern fusions, and seasonal delights that are waiting to be discovered. From the comforting embrace of a humble “onigiri” to the contemporary zing of “wafū pasta”, every dish invites diners on a journey of flavors, textures, and tales.

The realm of Japanese drinks and desserts further amplifies this narrative. Beyond sake lies an array of beverages, each with its character and story. The world of wagashi (traditional sweets) reveals a dimension where food transforms into an art form, and every bite is a celebration of craftsmanship.

Therefore, the invitation here is not just to eat but to explore, to venture beyond the familiar lanes of sushi counters and ramen joints. It’s an invitation to immerse oneself in local izakayas, to feel the warmth of a “kotatsu” while enjoying “nabe” in winter, to relish the ephemeral beauty of “sakura” flavored treats in spring, and to understand the stories that a simple bowl of rice narrates.

In essence, Japanese cuisine, in its vastness and depth, is a testament to the country’s undying commitment to perfection, harmony, and innovation. It reminds us that food, beyond its primary function of nourishment, is a medium of connection, an art form, a ritual, and above all, a celebration of life. So, as you stand at the cusp of this gastronomic odyssey, remember that every bite, every sip, is a step deeper into the heart and soul of Japan.

source: Samuel and Audrey on YouTube

Recommended Places to Eat in Japan

Japan, with its rich culinary heritage and innovative spirit, is a gastronomic paradise. While it’s impossible to list all the culinary gems, here’s a curated list spanning traditional establishments, modern wonders, and street food havens that provide a comprehensive taste of the country.


  1. Sukiyabashi Jiro: Famous from the documentary “Jiro Dreams of Sushi”, this small sushi restaurant is a Michelin 3-star establishment. It’s renowned for its exceptional quality sushi and the meticulous craftsmanship of its chef, Jiro Ono.
  2. Rokurinsha: Located in Tokyo Station’s Ramen Street, it’s one of the best spots to try tsukemen, a type of ramen where noodles are dipped in a separate rich broth.
  3. Tonki: A classic venue in Meguro, specializing in tonkatsu, a deep-fried breaded pork cutlet. With wooden interiors and a show kitchen, the ambiance is as delightful as the food.
  4. Yakitori Alley (Omoide Yokocho): A bustling lane near Shinjuku Station, with multiple tiny eateries serving skewered meats and veggies.


  1. Kikunoi: A Michelin 3-star ryotei (luxurious traditional restaurant) offering kaiseki, a multi-course meal that epitomizes seasonal ingredients and artistic presentation.
  2. Nishiki Market: Often termed as “Kyoto’s Kitchen”, this bustling market offers a plethora of street food, including pickles, seafood, and sweets.
  3. Izuju: Located near Gion district, it’s famous for Kyoto-style sushi, particularly sabazushi (mackerel sushi).


  1. Dōtonbori Street: Osaka’s culinary heart, where you can savor takoyaki (octopus balls), okonomiyaki (savory pancakes), and kushikatsu (deep-fried skewers).
  2. Hajime: A Michelin 3-star establishment, blending French techniques with Japanese ingredients, creating avant-garde dishes.


  1. Okonomimura: A multi-story building dedicated to Hiroshima-style okonomiyaki, a layered savory pancake with various ingredients.
  2. Hassei: Another great spot for Hiroshima-style okonomiyaki, offering diverse variations of this delightful dish.


  1. Yatai Stalls: These open-air food stalls along the Nakasu riverbank serve ramen, yakitori, and oden. They embody the spirit of Fukuoka’s vibrant street food culture.
  2. Mizutaki Oshima: This establishment specializes in Mizutaki, a chicken-based hot pot dish, epitomizing Fukuoka’s local flavors.


  1. Sapporo Ramen Yokocho: An alley dedicated to Sapporo-style ramen, known for its rich miso-based broth.
  2. Jingisukan Daruma: A popular spot for trying Jingisukan, a grilled mutton dish, named after Genghis Khan.


  1. Omicho Market: A seafood paradise, with stalls offering the freshest fish, sushi, and an array of delectable street food.
  2. Tsuruko: An elegant restaurant specializing in Kaga cuisine, showcasing the culinary traditions of the Kanazawa region.

Venturing into these places provides not just an exploration of flavors but also a deep dive into the cultural, historical, and regional nuances of Japanese cuisine. While the listed establishments offer a comprehensive taste, remember that Japan’s beauty lies in its hidden gems, those quaint tea houses, age-old sake breweries, and family-run eateries that complete the culinary tapestry of this magnificent land.

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